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Sample details Pages: 16 Words: 4913 Downloads: 6 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Statistics Essay Did you like this example? Knowledge was closely investigated by academic researchers for the last few decades. It is nowadays considered as one of the most important strategic assets (Winter, 1987) that contribute to the competitive advantage of the firms (Kogut and Zander, 1992); this perspective is associated with the knowledgeÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å"based view (Grant, 1996). Resulting from that numerous studies exist about knowledge. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Achieving A Successful Knowledge Transfer In Strategic Alliances" essay for you Create order As Winter (1987) suggests, knowledge can be created, stored and transmitted (transferred), exploited and the ability to success in these activities represents the essence of the firm. Different studies consider these various stages. However, the process of transfer is very interesting to reflect on because it is precisely knowledge transfer that has been established by several academics as having a major impact on performance (Cohen and Levinthal, 1990; Osterloh and Frey 2000). Some literature analyzes the process of knowledge transfer itself (OÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢Dell and Grayson, 1998; Szulanski, 2000), and its determinants (Grant and Baden- Fuller, 2000), other its boundaries (Szulanski, 1996; Salk, 1996; Hennart et al. 1999; Dyer and Hatch, 2006; Heiman and Nickerson, 2004). Together the authors try to shed light on the stages of knowledge transfer and factors that can positively or negatively contribute to it. Despite the abundance of studies, some researchers like Wagner (2005) call for the investigation of Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âsoft issuesÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬? such as absorptive capacity and culture in successful knowledge sharing. Moreover, different researchers (Inkpen, 2000; Mowery et al. 1996), studied knowledge in the context of a strategic alliance. Some studies convey the idea that this might be the most appropriate form of collaboration in order to share (transfer) knowledge because of several advantages (Grant and Baden-Fuller, 2004). Other academics, as Simonin (1999), define difficulties that alliances face in the process of knowledge transfer. Therefore it might be useful to combine these ideas and see what makes alliances being so unique and how knowledge can be transferred in these structures. This literature review is meant to integrate various studies to make a clear picture of what makes the transfer of knowledge successful in-between partners of strategic alliance by reviewing determinants of knowledge transfer, particularities of alliances and possible strategies to follow in order to achieve the transfer. Problem statement The problem indication brings us to delimitate the following area of research: Successful knowledge transfer in a strategic alliance Research Questions Since knowledge becomes an essential asset, and its manipulation might have strong impact on the wellbeing and performance of the firm, it is interesting to investigate the knowledge transfer. Our inquiry will be done by first looking at what is knowledge and its different kinds. Then the models of knowledge transfer (in general) will be considered to see how knowledge is shared, finishing with the factors that can impact positively or negatively (barriers) on this process, this includes the Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âsoft issuesÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬? sited previously. Research question 1: What are the key determinants in the process of knowledge transfer? Strategic alliances are often used by firms to transfer knowledge. Several studies might convey the idea that alliances is the most appropriate form of cooperation in order to transfer knowledge, that is why in the second research question we are going to discuss characteristics and particularities of alliances that contribute to build a solid ground for knowledge transfer. Research question 2: What characteristics and particularities of the strategic alliance might shape the process of knowledge transfer in this form of cooperation? Perhaps the most practical issue for organizations involved in the process of knowledge transfer within a strategic alliance is the one that deals with practices to implement and strategies to follow for both partners. Therefore the third research question will deal with possible behavior and ways of doing that can facilitate the knowledge transfer within a strategic alliance. Research question3: What strategies and behavior could the parties of the strategic alliance adoptÃâÃ (implement) to enhance the transfer of knowledge and cope with the difficulties alliance might face? Research methods This is a descriptive research that will be done in the form of literature review. The data sources are the existing academic literature in the field of management, strategy and organization science. The literature includes top journals such as Journal of Management Studies, Strategic Management Journal, Knowledge and Process Management, Academy of Management Journal Structure of the thesis In the second chapter the investigation will be done in order to gain knowledge of what could be the determinants of the knowledge transfer in general (without considering the context of the strategic alliances). To do this, first of all, knowledge and its different kinds have to be defined. Following that the review of the literature about the process of knowledge transfer itself will be made. Chapter 2 will end with the review of possible factors that can affect the process by whether contributing to its success or by creating barriers to it. In the third chapter we are going to take a closer look on the strategic alliances. Following the definition, the discussion will pursue in order to understand why certain researchers think that strategic alliances are the most appropriate form of collaboration between firms for the process of knowledge transfer. Moreover, in this chapter we are going to look if certain characteristics of the alliance can ameliorate the transfer (i.e. firmÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s similarities, orientation, strategy, resources). The last research question will be answered in the fourth chapter by examining the possible strategies and behaviors that companies involved in the alliance could undertake to enable a successful knowledge transfer, while they might face several challenges. At the end, conclusions will summarize this literature review bringing up possible questions for future discussion and useful recommendations about knowledge transfer within a strategic alliance. Chapter 2: The determinants in the process of knowledge transfer 1/ What is knowledge In general knowledge is considered to be gained by observation, study and experiences. It is the mixture of values, context information, expert insight (Davenport and Prusak, 1998) that resides within the person. It can be accumulated and subjected to improvements unlimited number of times. It is difficult to distinguish knowledge in itself from data and from information. Knowledge is neither of these two. Data results from transactions and information is derived from data. Fransman (1998) clearly underlines the fact that knowledge is indeed Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âprocessed informationÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬?. In this sense it is also possible to say that knowledge is socially constructed (Pentland 1995): individuals produce knowledge by processing information through their intellect. They act on knowledge by their actions and going through experiences, meanwhile their perspectives and insights change creating the opportunity to proceed differently in new situations, when new sets of information are available (Quinn et al. 1998; Weick 1995). 2/ Types of knowledge Another approach to introduce knowledge would be to state its different kinds: tacit and explicit. The observation of the existence of the explicit knowledge goes back to Polanyi (1966). Later the number of terms used were substantially enlarged to: formal, verbal knowledge (Corsini, 1987), declarative knowledge (Kogut and Zander, 1992), theoretical kind of knowledge (Nonaka and Takeuchi 1995), articulated or articulable knowledge (Hedlund, 1994; Winter, 1987), a Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"know-whyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ knowledge (Sanchez 1997). To Polanyi (1966) explicit knowledge is easily subjected to codification in a formal language (can be stated or written down). Winter (1987, p. 171) agrees on that definition by saying that this type of knowledge can Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"be communicated from its possessor to another person in symbolic form and the recipient of the communication becomes as much Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âin the knowÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬? as the originatorÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢. Sobol and Lei (1994) identified two ways in which one can think about explicit knowledge. The first one in terms of communicability: it is easily written down, encoded, explained, or understoodÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ (Sobol and Lei, 1994, p. 170). ItÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s also possible to think about this kind of knowledge in terms of possession: Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"such knowledge is not specific or idiosyncratic to the firm or person possessing itÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ (p. 170). Perhaps for this research the most interesting type of knowledge is the tacit knowledge because it is the one that largely contributes to competitive advantage of the firm. In fact, it was determined by several scholars (Delios and Beamish, 2001; Fang et al., 2007; Pisano, 1994) that tacit (as well as complex and specific) knowledge brings organizations to better-quality performance if its transfer was successfully accomplished. Also it is the type of knowledge that is considered to bring substantial competitive advantage by several academics (Nonaka, 1991; Grant, 1993; Spender, 1993). Polanyi (1966) wrote that tacit knowledge is non-verbalizable, intuitive and unarticulated. Consequently it is hard to replicate and share. Deeper understanding was brought by Nonaka (1994) and (Sternberg, 1994) who both support the fact that tacit knowledge is context-specific: it Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"is a knowledge typically acquired on the job or in the situation where it is usedÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ (Sternberg, 1994, p. 28). Nonaka (1994) as other researchers also wrote that tacit knowledge is personal (Sanchez 1997), difficult to articulate, and highly linked with action (Nonaka and Takeuchi 1995). Therefore, on the one hand tacit knowledge is very difficult to transfer but on the other hand this same characteristic makes it being a critical and strategic resource of the firm and its competitive advantage, because competitors can hardly replicate it (Grant,1993; Sobal and Lei, 1994). 3/ Models: How to transmit knowledge Before getting to discussion in which the transfer of knowledge involves strategic alliances, it is useful to look at the process itself. Several models attempt to explain the basics of knowledge transfer. Some of them identify key elements that play a role this process, other present stages and steps, finally some conditions are also acknowledged. In order to understand how knowledge is transferred it is possible to first look at the definitions in cognitive psychology. At the individual level, the transfer was defined as Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âhow knowledge acquired in one situation applies (or fails to apply) to anotherÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬? by Singley and Anderson (1989). The transfer of knowledge in the organizational context also involves transfer at the individual level because the evolution of knowledge merely occurs when individuals express the will to share their experiences and insights with others (Davenport and Prusak, 1998; Kim and Mauborgne, 1998). This movement of knowledge through various levels of organization from individual, through group, up to organizational was identified by Nonaka (1994) as the concept of Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âspiral of knowledge creationÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬?. The same process as on individual level occurs also at other levels such as group, department, divisionÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ Here the transfer of knowledge is the process in which knowledge and experience of one unit (company, group or department) affects another. Szulanski (2000, p.10) supports this vision: Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"Knowledge transfer is seen as a process in which an organization recreates and maintains a complex, causally ambiguous set of routines (i.e. knowledge and expe riences) in a new setting (i.e. another company, department, divisionÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦)Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢. Knowledge transfer can be regarded as process which is composed of basic elements. Szulanski (2000) identified them as: source, channel, message, recipient, and context. Obviously, source is the unit from which the message (knowledge) will flow to the recipient by the channel and the whole process will be considered in a particular organizational context which can be fertile (facilitates knowledge transfer) or barren (problems occur with transfer). In the same research he explained several stages of the process of knowledge transfer. The process usually starts by the initiation. Then comes the implementation phase divided into several stages: Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"the initial implementation effort, the ramp-up to satisfactory performance, and subsequent follow-through and evaluation efforts to integrate the practice with other practices of the recipientÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ (Szulanski 2000, p.12) Furthermore, OÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢Dell and Grayson (1998) elaborated six steps in the knowledge transfer. Primary the identification of important knowledge is necessary. From this point on it is essential to collect the knowledge systematically and then organize the knowledge. When knowledge has been organized it can be shared (transferred), but before the final stage of usage of knowledge to solve problems, it has to be adapted. A number of conditions of knowledge transfer were presented by Grant and Baden-Fuller (2000). There are three main conditions of knowledge transfer. Firstly, the transmitterÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s knowledge must be capable of being expressed in a communicable form. It is effortlessly done with explicit knowledge, however tacit knowledge has to be made explicit with the help of an expert system or be shared trough Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"process of observation and imitationÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ (p.122). What is more, transferred knowledge must be understandable to the source and the recipient. Therefore both have to use Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âcommon knowledgeÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬? which can be expressed in terms of the same language, information technology skills and culture. Finally, the new knowledge transferred from the source to recipient must be capable of aggregation which means that it would be possible to add to already existing knowledge. 4/What factors can influence the transfer of knowledge (positive and negative) Several features may play a substantial role in the process of knowledge transfer. When looking at the literature the most obvious in terms of determinants of knowledge transfer, might be the type of knowledge that is transferred. Explicit knowledge is easy to codify and to transfer. Conversely, a large number of studies, like Grant (1996), report the negative influence of knowledge tacitness on its transfer. In general it is considered that tacit knowledge is very difficult to share because of the complexity of its codification (Reed and DeFillippi, 1990) and organizational embeddedness (Kogut and Zander 1992) and that it contributes to creating ambiguity which can most of the times create barriers to the process of transfer. Simonin (1999, 2004) proposed a model in which knowledge tacitness indirectly influences knowledge transfer through ambiguity; it nevertheless specifies the importance of knowledge tacitness as critical factor which makes knowledge transfer difficult. Academics like Grant (1996), Reed and DeFillippi (1990) and Zander and Kogut (1995) raise the issue of complexity of knowledge. Complexity may appear for example when different kinds of skills and wide range of knowledge (individual, team-based experiences, technologies) have to be shared. The more complex the knowledge, the more difficult it is to share. Reed and DeFillippi (1990) also considered the influence of the specificity on knowledge transfer. The term refers to knowledge which is related only to certain kind of transaction relations. Williamson (1999) defined specificity as Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"the ease with which an asset can be redeployed to alternative uses and by alternative users without loss of productive value.Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ From these studies it is now clear that tacitness, complexity and specificity impedes to knowledge transfer by creating ambiguity. According to Simonin (1999) tacitness has the greatest influence in this relationship, followed by specificity, which is much less significant and finally complexity. It seems that culture and willingness to share, elements often cited as factors that can influence knowledge transfer, are interrelated. Willingness to share is one of the key determinants of knowledge transfer; this means that one must be willing to share and the other one to receive. It is not always easy to let go from knowledge. As Bernstein (2000) suggests that willingness to share is influenced by identity because an individual might have a psychological ownership over the knowledge he possesses. Furthermore, Alavi and Leidner (1999) made a good remark about the fact that it will be difficult for organizations to share knowledge and integrate knowledgeÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å"based systems without primary having the information sharing culture (i.e. valuing information sharing). Davenport (1997) describes this as open versus closed culture. Very similar to the concept of willingness to share, Szulanski (1996, p.12) argued that lack of motivation also has to be considered as one of the barriers to the process of knowledge transfer because it may Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"result in procrastination, passivity, feigned acceptance, sabotage, or outright rejection in the implementation and use of new knowledge.Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ Szulanski (1996) also noticed another barrier of knowledge transfer. Absorptive capacity is one of the very well known elements that influence the transfer of knowledge. It is the ability to Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"exploit outside sources of knowledgeÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ (Cohen Levinthal, 1990, p. 128) and integrate it by replacing old practices by new ones, which is not always effortless (Glaser, Abelson, Garrison, 1983). Chapter 3: Particularities of strategic alliances shaping the process of knowledge transfer Combining resources is the logical response to the harshness of nowadays competition. Other factors as the increase in customersÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ expectations and the less strict regulatory barriers also led companies to form alliances (Gomes-Casseres 1994; Harrigan 1988; Kogut 1988; Nielsen 1988). Reid, Bussiere, Greenaway 2001 (alliance formation issues) Moreover, scholars have identified several key reasons for firms to form alliances. Among these usually appears risk mitigation, economies of scale/scope, entries to new markets (Inkpen 2000; Hennart, 1988; Kogut, 1988), and facilitated flows of technology-based capabilities (Mowery et al. 1996; Kogut, 1988; Cohen and Levinthal, 1990; Hamel, 1991) + (Mariti and Smiley, 1983; Hamel et al., 1989; Shan, 1990; Powell and Brantley, 1992; Mody, 1993; Khanna, 1996) Mowery 1996. However these are not the only possibilities alliances are able to provide. Alliances can be considered as one of the means for knowledge gaining and sharing, besides mergers and acquisitions. According to Inkpen (2000) there exist several possibilities for companies to transfer and gain knowledge: Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âinternalization within the firm, market contracts, and relational contractsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬?. He considers individual strategic alliances as relational contracts that permit knowledge acquisition and transfer, suitable in the context where knowledge is complex and hard to codify, whereas market based transfers are considered to be more efficient for product related (embodied) knowledge. Number of other researchers also supported the fact that alliances permit firms to share knowledge and ultimately to learn from the partners (Grant, 1996; Hamel, 1991; Khanna et al., 1998; Kogut, 1998). Inkpen (2000, p.1019) wrote: Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"Through the shared execution of the alliance task, mutual interdependence and problem solving, and observation of alliance activities and outcomes, firms can learn from their partners.Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ 1/ Definition strategic alliance In the literature it is possible to find several key characteristics of an alliance. An alliance is usually created between two or more firms that cooperate together in order to achieve some strategic objective, create value that they would not be able to achieve on their own (Borys and Jemison, 1989) and pursue a set of goals (Harrigan 1988; Yoshino and Rangan 1995). Partners are complementary and contribute with their resources and capabilities (Teece, 1992); they are involved in a range of interdependent activities (Contractor and Lorange 19882002) and share benefits and risks of the alliance. Dussauge et al. (2000, p.99) described an alliance between two Knowledge Based Enterprises as: Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"an arrangement between two or more independent companies that choose to carry out a project or operate in a specific business area by co-coordinating the necessary skills and resources jointly rather than either operating alone or merging their operationsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢. Some academics consider alliances to be arrangements in which firms establish exchange relationship without joint ownership being considered as a form of alliance (Dickson Weaver, 1997); others consider equity alliances such as joint ventures, also be a form of alliance (Mowery et al. 1996). In this research all possible forms of alliances are considered: a non-equity alliance (co-operation without creation of new organization or exchange of equity); an equity alliance (unilateral or bilateral equity holding among partners without creation of the a new firm); a joint venture (new firm is created, involving joint resources, where partners share ownership and control) Reid, Bussiere, Greenaway 2001 (alliance formation issues) Mowery et al. (1996) have as well identified various types of alliances: equity joint venture, license agreement, cross-licensing and technology sharing, customer-supplier partnership, mixed modes, RD contract, and joint development agreement. 2/ Why strategic alliance can be considered (by certain researchers) the most appropriate form of collaboration for knowledge transfer? Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"Accordingly, of all approaches to knowledge imitability between a knowledge holder and a knowledge seeker, strategic alliances constitute perhaps the most adequate, but nevertheless challenging vehicle for internalizing the otherÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s competencyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ Simonin (1999, 595). There are several forms of interorganizational exchange that enable firms to protect valuable resources including mergers and acquisitions, licensing and alliances (Coff, 1997). There are two kinds of knowledge explicit and tacit (Polanyi, 1966), therefore if two firms share knowledge, it will be explicit explicit, explicit tacit or tacit tacit. Licensing can provide a solution for the first two combinations. Yet, it is very hard to gain competitive advantage with explicit knowledge resources, because they might be sold to other companies. By contrast, competitive advantage occurs when tacit knowledge assets are combined, provided their ambiguity, complexity and inimitability (Barney 1991; Dierickx and Cool 1989). This is done through alliances or mergers and acquisitions. Reid, Bussiere, Greenaway 2001 (alliance formation issues) Conventional sale contracts, markets, mergers and acquisitions seem to be less attractive structures for knowledge transfer in comparison with alliances. Coff (1997) found that it is not easy to evaluate the value of knowledge based resources, primary because of their tacitness (Mowery, 1983; Pisano, 1990). Firms that want to acquire new knowledge will have to face uncertainty concerning its characteristics and difficulties to determine its quality and to be certain of the transferability of the knowledge held by another firm. Some researchers raise a concern about the fact that in some cases the firm that will acquire knowledge is not certain to be able to deploy it (Flamholtz and Coff 1994; Haspeslagh and Jemison 1991; Polanyi 1966; Zander and Kogut 1995). In this sense, alliance permits to mitigate risks of bad investments. The Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"indigestibilityÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ problem of MA, quite the opposite of alliances, was discussed by several academics (Hennart and Reddy, 1997; Inkpen and Beamish, 1997; Dunning, 1997). Indigestible assets are those who come with valuable assets during the transaction (Nonaka 1994). In fact, for some of these assets (in this case knowledge) the aftermarket may not exist after the acquisition. Within an alliance the company does not have to pay for Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"digestionÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ of non-valuable assets and has access to important knowledge resources held by the partner. Reid, Bussiere, Greenaway 2001 (alliance formation issues) Grant and Baden-Fuller (2004) identified some advantages of alliances related to knowledge like possibility to achieve Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âearly-moverÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬? advantage and risk spreading. Early-mover advantage signifies recombining knowledge into innovative products in a quickly advancing knowledge environment. More precisely, this means Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"to quickly identify, access, and integrate across new knowledge combinationsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢. In this situation strategic alliances enable company to quickly access knowledge necessary for introduction of new products to market. Grant and Baden-Fuller (2004) wrote: Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"The greater the benefits of early-mover advantage in technologically-dynamic environments, the greater the propensity for firms to establish interfirm collaborative arrangements in order to access new knowledge.Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ A risk exists in terms that sometimes a company might be uncertain about the future knowledge requirements and knowledge acquisition and integration takes time, the investments are risky (Grant and Baden-Fuller, 2004): Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"The greater the uncertainty as to the future knowledge requirements of a firmÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s product range, the greater its propensity to engage in interfirm collaborations as a means of accessing and integrating additional knowledge.Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ Powell (1987) also noticed that alliance formation diminishes the risk that knowledge will dissipate quickly. 3/ Which characteristics and capabilities of alliance partners can ameliorate the transfer of knowledge? Before considering the transfer of knowledge, it is important to underline, that both partners of an alliance are expected to possess valuable knowledge (Eisenhardt and Schoonhoven 1996). Ahuja (2000) considered such knowledge possession as opportunity for linkage-formation. He also identified three categories of valuable knowledge assets that are: technical capital (capability to create new products, technology and processes), commercial capital (supporting resources) and social capital (useful networks). Throughout the literature it is possible to distinguish some capabilities that are important for proper functioning of the knowledge based alliance: absorptive capacity, combinative capability, experience with alliances, suitable design for knowledge exchange, and choice of alliance structure. In numerous studies, absorptive capacity plays an essential role in the process of knowledge transfer and learning within strategic alliances (Lane and Lubatkin, 1998). Van den Bosch et al. (1999) wrote that it combined the Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"evaluation, acquisition integration and commercial utilization of knowledge obtained from sources exogenous to the firmÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢. Absorptive capacity is susceptible to evolve and augment through activity (Barringer and Harrison, 2000) because it is Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"historical and path dependent in natureÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ as was defined by Cohen and Levinthal (1990). Grant (1996) recognized that knowledge absorption capability can be influenced by: the degree to which the expert knowledge held by organizational members is utilized; the width of specialized knowledge required from firm members; the degree to which a capability can access additional knowledge and reconfigure existing knowledge. Defined by Kogut and Zander (1992) combinative capability refers to the ability of the parties of an alliance to extend, interpret, apply, current and acquired knowledge with the goal of generating new applications from existing knowledge base. Collaborative know-how affects firmÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s ability to form a successful partnership and create a solid ground for knowledge transfer. Simonin (1997) refers to it as to Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"ability to institutionalize organizational routines as a result of previous experiencesÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢. Pennings et al. (1994) supports that firms tend to reproduce the behavior from their past experiences. When firms have previous experiences of collaboration within alliance, they acquire knowledge that helps them to effectively design future alliances (Lyles, 1988) and Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"develop superior capabilities at managing particular organizational forms such as alliancesÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ (Kale et al., 2002, p. 748). This experience permits avoiding various difficulties (Doz, 1996; Powell et al., 1996). Teece (2000) stressed the importance of the design of the firm to enhance performance and knowledge sharing. He identified distinctive characteristics of design in successful firms. Among these, entrepreneurial orientation and flexibility expressed in rapid responses to ephemeral market opportunities flexible boundaries (outsourcing and alliances). They were also characterized by their non-bureaucratic decision making and rapid internal knowledge sharing owing to the not really strict hierarchies. The choice of alliance structure should be determined considering the perspective of gaining valuable resources (knowledge) from a partner without losing its own (Das and Teng, 2000). Different views exist as to effectiveness of equity joint venture form of alliance for successful knowledge transfer. Several researchers find that this form is the most suitable for the transfer of tacit knowledge and complex capabilities (Kogut, 1988, Mowery et al., 1996). However, Das and Teng (2000) think that this structure is too risky for partnership based on knowledge-based contribution, and that it is more suitable for contributing property-based resources. Inkpen (2002) identifies five categories of antecedents of alliance learning: learning partner characteristics; teaching partner characteristics; knowledge characteristics; relationship factors; and alliance form. Two key characteristics of the learning partner, identified by Nielsen and Nielsen (2009), are important, namely collaborative know-how (same as previous experience of alliances) and knowledge protectiveness (Simonin, 1997, 1999). Protectiveness matches the concept of openness and the degree to which partners are protective of their knowledge. How well do the support the risk of knowledge leakage or spillover (Inkpen, 2000). Chapter 4: potential strategies and behavior that parties of the strategic alliance might adopt to enhance the transfer of knowledge and to cope with difficulties alliances might face Strategic alliances might face a number of difficulties. The first thing that comes out from the numerous literature on strategic alliance and knowledge sharing, is the fear of knowledge spillovers, that are assumed to be inevitable consequence of alliance involvement, despite the efforts companies make in order to protect their valuable knowledge assets (Inkpen, 2000). Therefore, it immediately comes to the issue of trust. In the late 90Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ a discussion was raised about the possibility that some firms use strategic alliance as a Trojan Horse in order to steal knowledge from its partners. This was especially thought about Japanese partners. However empirical studies do not find support for this hypothesis (Hennart et al. 1999; Mowery 1996). The literature elaborates on so called Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âlearning racesÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬? (Khanna et al. 1998) when one partner (acts opportunistically) tries to gain more knowledge in the alliance exchange, than he shares. Hamel (1991, 86) described alliances as Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"transitional devices where the primary objective was the internalization of partner skillsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢. This creates a significant challenge for strategic alliance. To deal with with this issue, norms and systems can be designed; functional rules can be developed to structure partner engagement (QuÃÆ'Ã ©lin, 1997). to be continued. When little trust is involved, this may lead to knowledge protectiveness from one or both of the partners. Nielsen and Nielsen (2009) wrote that Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"protectiveness not only may lead to uncertainty and conflict but it also reduces the amount of information exchangedÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢. They also add, that explicit knowledge protective policies and procedures by one partner, harmfully influence the perception the other partner might have on honest and open cooperation: Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"For instance, not revealing relevant information and knowledge may be perceived as unwillingness to devote adequate resources to the allianceÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢. This is in line with Simonin (1999) way of thinking, where knowledge protectiveness is positively related to ambiguity, which in turn impacts negatively on knowledge transfer. Therefore for successful knowledge transfer partners might be willing to cooperate and minimize knowledge protectiveness (Pisano, 1988). Lee et al. (2007) suggest t hat knowledge protectiveness (still necessary if reasonably employed) should be accompanied with building up relational capital (trust, communication and commitment). Therefore one does not have to fear to trust in an alliance. In the contrary, established trust relationship between partners has been shown to bring positive outcomes for transfer of knowledge and learning. Relational capital can be also expressed as social exchanges (social exchanges view). From this view, learning and knowledge transfer in strategic alliances are also positively influenced by Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"commitment, trust and mutual influence between partnersÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ (Senthil et al., 2005). The results of their study show that reciprocal commitment between partners enhances interfirm learning because moral obligation of partners permits to build mutual commitment. They explain further, that interdependence and joint coordination increase due to the mutual resource commitment. To them trust is built progressively as knowledge, skills and competences are gained through alliance interactions. Trustworthiness, as well as goodwill, is shown to be key factors influencing effective transfer of knowledge in well functioning alliance. To be continued with: Gulati (1996) and others about the obstacles to interfirm knowledge transfer created by distance, cultural differences, and other factors. David C. Mowery, Joanne E. Oxley, Brian S. Silverman 1996 Strategic Alliances and Interfirm Knowledge Transfer Davenport and Prusak (1998) eight critical success factors for knowledge transfer: effective knowledge measurement, technical architecture, flexible organizational structure, knowledge-friendly culture, clear vision, a performance-based reward system, multi-channel knowledge transfer and senior management support. Gao Riley 2010 others Chapter 5: Conclusions and Recommendations Conclusion Discussion Academic and practical recommendations
Thursday, May 7, 2020
Internal checks and balance system are used to prevent company from mistakes. However, EnronÃ¢â¬â¢s internal checks and balances system were fail to prevent its from demise because its external auditors were provide service to help Enron to cover the loopholes, internal accountants were violate accounting rules in several of off-balance sheet and the lawyers did not provide fair reports because of conflict of interest. First, as an external auditor, Andersen was help to conceal the false statements rather than revealed them to ensure a stable accounting system and verify the accuracy of accounting reports. Andersen not only being EnronÃ¢â¬â¢s external auditor, but also been working for Enron as internal auditor. Meanwhile, Andersen provided consulting services and joined EnronÃ¢â¬â¢s accounting department in senior positions (Nadad 2003a, p.2). Hence, some mistakes, such as generated by senior positions and provided by consulting services, would not be revealed because Andersen would not happy that those mistakes were publically known. Moreover, Andersen was help Enron to cover the untrue statement by using the loopholes of the accounting standards rather than correct them, and therefore, the number of off-balance sheet and the flaws in balance system would be increased. Second, same as auditor, Enron had hired same company which was Vision Elkins to provide inside counsel and outside counsel. Therefore, the errors provided in transactions and errors provided by inside counsel could notShow MoreRelated The U.S. Constitution: Checks Balances Essay1283 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesgovernment remained separate. To ensure that one of these branches did not trump the other branches, the Founders crafted Ã¢â¬â within the Constitution Ã¢â¬â a set of checks and balances. Separating powers, with checks and balances, made the U.S. government unique when it emerged in 1787. The Constitution describes a system of checks and balances and sets up a separation of p owers. The Constitution separates the three branches of governance through the first three articles. Article I applies to theRead MoreChapter 7 Reading Notes : Internal Control1095 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesChapter 7 Reading Notes: Internal Control: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Fraud is the act of deception in which a business including employees or management use to receive personal gain. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Fraud occurs based on three aspects and they are based off the fraud triangle. - They include pressure, rationalization and opportunity - Reducing these three key aspects of fraud will reduce the act of fraud in a business Ã¢â¬ ¢ Pressure: - Pressure entails financial pressure, where someone is financially unstable - A financial statementRead MoreFraud : A White Collar Crime That Is Victimless992 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesorganization can prevent fraud. Next we will look at implementing safeguards and checks and balances to prevent future occurrences. And Finally, we will address a public relations campaign that will regain the trust of donors and the community. There are steps that could be taken to eliminate or reduce the possibility of theft as well as specific areas within the organization which can provide checks and balances. In a small nonprofit, often the business manager acts alone and operates as an islandRead MoreAnalysis Of The Article The Federalist Papers By James Madison Essay1372 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesFederalist papersÃ¢â¬ , James Madison explains and defends the checks and balances system unique to our Constitution. In Federalist Paper No.51, Each branch of government is built so that their powers are checked by the powers of the other two branches; additionally, the powers of the three branches are checked by the people, who are the source of legitimate authority. Ã¢â¬Å"It may be a reflection on human nature, that such devices [checks and balances] should be necessary to control the abuses of governmentÃ¢â¬ ¦IfRead MoreJohn Locke And Thomas Hobbes Essay1490 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesestablish his model known as MadisonÃ¢ â¬â¢s model. James MadisonÃ¢â¬â¢s design to maximize liberty and still allow the government to govern is proven through the four component parts of MadisonÃ¢â¬â¢s model. These four components include separation of powers, checks and balances, federalism, and republicanism. The philosophies of John Locke and Thomas Hobbes influenced Madison in a way that allowed him to have both liberty and order at the same time. John Locke believed in individual liberty and freedom from the governmentRead MoreACC 300 Final Exam1401 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesinsuring a company against theft by employees. 9. The treasurer should prepare and sign a check only after authorization to issue a check has been provided. 10. Using borrowed money to increase the rate of return on common stockholders equity is called trading on the equity.The extent of internal control features adopted by a company must be evaluated in terms of cost-benefit. 11. A good system of internal control will safeguard its assets and enhance the accuracy and reliability of its accountingRead MoreAcc121 Course Project1745 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages| Student Answer: | Ã | the four basic financial statements are the income statement, statement of owners equity, statement of cash flows which reports activity for a specific period of time usually a month, quarter or year and the balance sheet which reports balances of certain elements at a specific time. the income statement should be prepared first, it lists revenues and expenses and calculates the companys net income or net losss for a period of time. it lists all the expenses and losses onRead MoreTo Keep a Companys Integrity and Prevent Fraud, Internet Controls Should be Utilized541 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesInternal Controls Definition. Internal Control is systems and controls that are implemented in a business to ensure that the integrity of information and prevent theft and fraud of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s cash and assets. This helps to ensure the legal Compliance and provide accurate information efficiently. Purpose. The purpose in Internal Controls to show youÃ¢â¬â¢re shareholders and employees what you would like the business to achieve in the year to come. When an business has internal controls implementedRead MoreAnalysis Of The Narrative And Observation Of Auditing Alchemys Workplace1749 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSystem Strengths Based on the information provided in the narrative and observation of Auditing AlchemyÃ¢â¬â¢s workplace, it appears that the organization has implemented internal control practices, policies, and procedures in an attempt to minimize organizational risk. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Management Genius: Peter F. Drucker By Md. Faruk Hossain (Faruk) Dear reader, there are many kinds of writings, many kinds of posts, that depict different kinds of tips, suggestions, etc. We will write a custom essay sample on Management Genius Peter F. Drucker or any similar topic only for you Order Now But I will try here to post something different, because there are really something differences to write. Actually sometimes there exist lots of geniuses in our invisibility, but we donÃ¢â¬â¢t know well about them though we did hear a little or knew the names of them. Today I will write about one of the best Management Genii of all time, who is Peter F. Drucker! It might keep you all in a feeling that I am trying to make you all to read management books, but Good News is that, it is not. It will be tried here to make you know because we really should know about Drucker! And if you donÃ¢â¬â¢t believe that, then the proof will undoubtly knock you at the end of reading this post. Anyway, is this the time to start now? Well we can move on! I am not actually writing DruckerÃ¢â¬â¢s born city, time, parents name, etc. I just would like to write why he is important for us, especially for business background students, because that should create more appeal. Drucker is actually much popular for his renowned book Ã¢â¬Å"The Practice of ManagementÃ¢â¬ (1954), though the world first looked at him through his Ã¢â¬Å"The End of Economic ManÃ¢â¬ (1939) book. The Practice of Management created some different expressions because he really put some different things there. This is a lively and forceful book. It proclaims that the manager is the dynamic, life-giving element in every business. It emphasizes the fact that management is Performance, it is Practice. In 1943 General Motors (GM) Corporation invited him to study its top management policies and organization structure. The result of this study was his book, Concept of the Corporation (1946), which turned out to be a landmark in management studies. The real subject matter of this book is social and political problems of industrial society. DruckerÃ¢â¬â¢s achievements are due to his extraordinary self-discipline. His time management is superb. His energy is boundless. He has the genius to concentrate and he unflinchingly adheres to his ideals and objectives. In a sense he has been practicing management by objectives (MBO) and self-control throughout his life. He is no doubt endowed with unusual gifts, which he has cultivated to great advantage. He is also a great accomplished time manager. He works in three capacities, as consultant, professor and author. He has reserve about 100 days for consultancy and speaking work. He has no office staff! Isn? t it amazing? It is remarkable how he handles all his work by himself. He is ruthless as far as time wasters are concerned. He responds to most of his mail. Drucker takes his work seriously and expects others to do likewise. Once when he found that one of his clients, a very big fir, had not done their homework properly, he walked out of the meeting! Drucker is immensely interested in teaching and teachers. Teacher Watching? has been his major hobby over a number of years. He also worked as consultant for scores of firms throughout the world and Ã¢â¬Å¾consulting is my laboratory? , he says. This is the source of his astonishing knowledge of the working of organizations, their technologies, their methods of management and their markets. He reads very little about management itself . He has developed his own approach to consultancy work. Now this is the time to ask question about Ã¢â¬Å"Why Study Drucker? Ã¢â¬ One great thing is, He raises simple questions which have profound practical implications. For instance, he once asked the chairman of a well-known firm manufacturing glass bottles, Ã¢â¬Å¾What us your business The chairman was surprised at this elementary question. He said, Ã¢â¬Å¾We are obviously in the business of manufacturing glass bottles.? Drucker said, Ã¢â¬Å¾No, this is not correct. You are in the packaging business.? The reason being that glass can be replaced by plastic, tin or cardboard, but the basic purpose is packaging. These few words of Drucker made all the difference as the firm turned over to other types of packaging and benefited greatly by it. Drucker has developed the art of raising such practical questions and providing practical guidelines for their solution. His suggestions are not ad hoc solutions based on guess work. They are based on wise experience, rigorous analysis, penetrating insight and unerring sense of practicability. To understand Drucker is to know the essentials of management. For this reason, F. C. Dyer once said about Drucker, Ã¢â¬Å"Whenever I pick up the writings of Drucker, I feel that I am in the presence of genius. Ã¢â¬ This is all about today? s writing. If it could make the readers happier and with useful, then again Drucker might come back here along with his lots of indispensable works, or with the similar post. At the End, we can finish our reading by simply brainstorming and looking at Ã¢â¬Å"What we can learn from Drucker? Ã¢â¬ : ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Self-Discipline Strong Time Management Asking simple question to get flawless ourselves Self-Confident Accustomed to working alone with self-reliance Serious with work, what is relied upon Thinking more Thank you all and it is really grateful for showing your perseverance to read the whole article. Md. Faruk Hossain farukbd@gmail. com Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- How to cite Management Genius Peter F. Drucker, Papers
Monday, April 27, 2020
Kierkegaard And Wittgenstein The connections between Ludwig Wittgenstein and Soren Kierkegaard as philosophers are not at all immediately obvious. On the surface, Wittgenstein deals with matters concerning the incorrect use of philosophical language and Kierkegaard focuses almost exclusively on answering the question how to become a Christian. But this account belies deeper structural similarities between these mens important works. Thus, this paper suggests that their methods, rather than exclusively content, contain a strong parallel on which a natural and hopefully fruitful examination of their work can be based. I claim that on at least four counts, Kierkegaard and Wittgenstein present clearly analogous form: indirect communication; examination of the limit of thought as applied to their respective spheres of inquiry; and the relationship to nonsense or the absurd. I claim that a careful study of these categories with respect to the philosophers major works will reveal sufficient similarity to have warranted our inquiry: hence a clear understanding of one philosophy should help to explain the others. I will assume a reader has only cursory familiarity with Kierkegaards ideas for the purposes this paper. To begin, a brief outline of Kierkegaards background and philosophy is germane. He was a Danish philosopher, literary figure, and ardent Christian living in the 19th century. As was mentioned above, his self-proclaimed intent was to examine what it means to be a Christian and how precisely to become one. Hence all of Kierkegaards works (Either/Or; A Sickness Unto Death; Concluding Unscientific Postscript; Fear and Trembling being among the most notable) have a decidedly religious flavor to them. For his adamant insistence on subjectivity rather than objectivity (in reaction to Hegel) when dealing with questions of personal importance, he has been labeled the father of modern existentialism. Kierkegaards works are not straightforward proclamations of his philosophy: he wrote under pseudonyms and assumed the persona of these fictional characters in his writing. Thus, one must be careful when attributing a particular position to Kierkegaard often the view is advanced by a pseudonym, so various inferential processes must be applied in order to substantiate a claim that Kierkegaard really meant any statement. Foremost among the structural similarities between Kierkegaard and Wittgenstein works is the use of indirect communication: as paradoxical as it may sound, both authors deliberately obfuscate their philosophy for the purposes of clarifying it. Clarification of the preceding assertion is obviously required. Each author felt that, due to inherent properties of their subject matter, outright delineation of their conclusions would somehow be a self-contradiction. Clearly their respective subject matter, the logical structure of language and the task of becoming a Christian, is inherently disparate. But let us examine more closely particular instances of indirect communication from both of the philosophers with the intention of finding similarity. By indirection, find direction out. Polonius, (Hamlet: II, i, 72) Soren Kierkegaard The use of pseudonyms: The purpose of pseudonyms was to present a viewpoint which the reader was initially to sympathize with. As the work developed, further assertions by this persona were to be found objectionable by the reader. The initially sympathized viewpoint would now be seen to be flawed and therefore have been rejected. Thus the reader was to have reached through self-reflection a conclusion that would not have been internalized if it had been simply communicated directly. Kierkegaard was writing for self-proclaimed Christians whom he believed were not truly faithful. Any clear suggested improvement in behavior would have been regarded by the reader as not applying to him or herself. Pseudonyms qua indirect communication helped readers to achieve personal understanding, rather than merely intellectual apprehension of an idea without application. Stories: Many portions of Kierkegaards work contain fictional narratives to help illustrate or illuminate some of his points. As is explained in his book, The Point of View for My Work as an Author, Kierkegaard takes advantage of the engaging quality of fiction to prevent the reader from disinterestedly analyzing his points, and to focus on how the reader feels personally about his ideas contained within the story. As indirect communication, story uses concrete instantiations of ideas rather than presenting an objectified, analytic theory to pick through and not relate to oneself. Heavy irony: An element of all forms of Kierkegaards writing include stating assertions
Thursday, March 19, 2020
There are various ways of looking at the cultural integration of the diverse population of the US. One view is that of the "melting pot," which proposes the people of different races and ethnicity should "blend together and assimilate into a common national culture" (Ivancevich and Gilbert, 2000, p. 75). A viewing countering this is to envision a "multicultural society," which suggests that different ethic groups can retain their culture and learn to coexist with each other (Ivancevich and Gilbert, 2000). While the "melting pot" scenario has been traditionally dominant among European-descended Americans, there has always been a strong undercurrent of multiculturalism (Ivancevich and Gilbert, 2000). Historians tell us that the US was never the homogenous culture that is presented by some traditionalists and conservatives. Diversity management is a concept that embraces the multicultural perspective. Within the field of education, it suggests that schools should not only consider the d iverse nature of its student population, but that administration policies should promote the "systematic and planned commitment" of the organization to "recruit, retain, reward and promote a heterogeneous mix of employees" (Ivancevich and Gilbert, 2000, p. 75). The demographics of the typical undergraduate student body have changed drastically over the course of the last decade. For example, one-third of American students are now minorities, which is up from 25 percent just a decade ago (Mellow, Van Slyck and Eynon, 2003). Forty percent of all undergraduates are now part-time students and 40 percent are over the age of 24, with 80 percent commuting to campus (Mellow, Van Slyck and Eynon, 2003). More than a quarter of these students are parents and 80 percent are employ, either full or part-time (Mellow, Van Slyck and Eynon, 2003). Furthermore, diversity is also indicative of the public school population. The National Center for Education Statistics, in th... Educational Human Resources Free Essays on Diversity Management/Educational Human Resources There are various ways of looking at the cultural integration of the diverse population of the US. One view is that of the "melting pot," which proposes the people of different races and ethnicity should "blend together and assimilate into a common national culture" (Ivancevich and Gilbert, 2000, p. 75). A viewing countering this is to envision a "multicultural society," which suggests that different ethic groups can retain their culture and learn to coexist with each other (Ivancevich and Gilbert, 2000). While the "melting pot" scenario has been traditionally dominant among European-descended Americans, there has always been a strong undercurrent of multiculturalism (Ivancevich and Gilbert, 2000). Historians tell us that the US was never the homogenous culture that is presented by some traditionalists and conservatives. Diversity management is a concept that embraces the multicultural perspective. Within the field of education, it suggests that schools should not only consider the d iverse nature of its student population, but that administration policies should promote the "systematic and planned commitment" of the organization to "recruit, retain, reward and promote a heterogeneous mix of employees" (Ivancevich and Gilbert, 2000, p. 75). The demographics of the typical undergraduate student body have changed drastically over the course of the last decade. For example, one-third of American students are now minorities, which is up from 25 percent just a decade ago (Mellow, Van Slyck and Eynon, 2003). Forty percent of all undergraduates are now part-time students and 40 percent are over the age of 24, with 80 percent commuting to campus (Mellow, Van Slyck and Eynon, 2003). More than a quarter of these students are parents and 80 percent are employ, either full or part-time (Mellow, Van Slyck and Eynon, 2003). Furthermore, diversity is also indicative of the public school population. The National Center for Education Statistics, in th...
Monday, March 2, 2020
Silica Tetrahedron Defined and Explained The vast majority of minerals in the Earths rocks, from the crust down to the iron core, are chemically classed as silicates. These silicate minerals are all based on a chemical unit called the silica tetrahedron. You Say Silicon, I Say Silica The two are similar, (but neitherÃ should be confused with silicone, which is a synthetic material). Silicon, whose atomic number is 14, was discovered by Swedish chemist JÃ ¶ns Jacob Berzelius in 1824. It is the seventh most abundant element in the universe. Silica is an oxide of silicon- hence its other name, silicon dioxide- and is the primary component of sand. Tetrahedron Structure The chemical structure ofÃ silica forms a tetrahedron. It consists of a central silicon atom surrounded by four oxygen atoms, with which the central atom bonds. The geometric figure drawn around this arrangement has four sides, each side being an equilateral triangle- aÃ tetrahedron. To envision this, imagine a three-dimensional ball-and-stick model in which three oxygen atoms are holding up their central silicon atom, much like the three legs of a stool, with the fourth oxygen atom sticking straight up above the central atom.Ã Oxidation Chemically, the silica tetrahedron works like this: Silicon has 14 electrons, of which two orbits the nucleus in the innermost shell and eight fill the next shell. The four remaining electrons are in its outermost valence shell, leaving it four electrons short, creating, in this case, aÃ cation with four positive charges. The four outer electrons are easily borrowed by other elements. Oxygen has eight electrons, leaving it two short of a full second shell. Its hunger for electrons is what makes oxygen such a strong oxidizer, an element capable of making substances lose their electrons and, in some cases, degrade. For instance, iron before oxidation is an extremely strong metal until it is exposed to water, in which case it forms rust and degrades. As such, oxygen is an excellent match with silicon. Only, in this case, they form a very strong bond. Each of the four oxygens in the tetrahedron shares one electron from the silicon atom in a covalent bond, so the resulting oxygen atom is an anion with one negative charge. Therefore the tetrahedron as a whole is a strong anion with four negative charges, SiO44Ã¢â¬â. Silicate Minerals The silica tetrahedron is a very strong and stable combination that easily links up together in minerals, sharing oxygens at their corners. Isolated silica tetrahedra occur in many silicates such as olivine, where the tetrahedra are surrounded by iron and magnesium cations. Pairs of tetrahedra (SiO7) occur in several silicates, the best-known of which is probably hemimorphite. Rings of tetrahedra (Si3O9 or Si6O18) occur in the rare benitoite and the common tourmaline, respectively. Most silicates, however, are built of long chains and sheets and frameworks of silica tetrahedra. The pyroxenes and amphiboles have single and double chains of silica tetrahedra, respectively. Sheets of linked tetrahedra make up the micas, clays, and other phyllosilicate minerals. Finally, there are frameworks of tetrahedra, in which every corner is shared, resulting in a SiO2 formula. Quartz and the feldspars are the most prominent silicate minerals of this type. Given the prevalence of the silicate minerals, it is safe to say that theyÃ form the basic structure of the planet.
Saturday, February 15, 2020
Child observation paper - Case Study Example The room has a big glass window wherein, children can easily view the farm. That Laboratory School has a small farm behind for children to roam around and exploration of nature. During the day, there are enhancement activities and training given to children to facilitate their learning and help them grow smart and healthy. Children use to play with each other, solve physical problems using interactive games and materials, and do creative works and taking appropriate responsibilities to develop personal discipline and responsible behavior. Here, children learn to mingle with one another; and "my child" is one of them. My child is a 4 year-old boy. He attends day in a day care at our community college. He seems to be healthy physically and emotionally and is quite well adjusted showing no sign of any developmental concerns. He is pretty doing well in a day care; he interacts normally with other children and seems rather smart as he knows his way around a computer screen already. He is curious on anything new to him and is always willing to try or investigate objects that catch his attention. He always finds things very interesting although the toys he plays on are already old. He is active, likes to play and look tireless all day. As I observe, my child seems to manifest both the physical and emotional healthy condition as he has no problem in interacting with others and is showing quite remarkable positive attitudes towards everything which a normal healthy kid would likely to have. Over-all Impression of His Development My child is quite following a normal developmental stage. He seems to be excited on new things and his mind full of wonderful imaginations of things that are not there. This manifests in his works of arts like drawing, painting, and building blocks. He is a bit intelligent, he likes doing things on his own with out asking the help of the teacher. He is excited to find out what will happen after trying to fix one object to another, he is very independent. While other kids are roaming around their teachers to explain to them what to do, my child easily get the instruction from the teacher and start doing it all by himself with no fear of mistakes. His positive interaction with others as I observed him, show no sign of developmental concerns or problems. He interacts casually and participates well in the group. He is confident in himself and is rather smart in doing the right thing. He even suggests something to his playmates what to do to make the game really much interesting. This positive social attitude of my child may not simply part of the developmental process but I guess, a manifestation of advance intelligence for a four year old kid, maybe a normal reaction of a growing child being curious about many things. Socialization Inside the room, the children have all the opportunity to interact with other children and adults. In this case, I saw my child intermingle with other kids of his age and with his teachers. My child seems to have developed a good self-esteem; he did not have difficulty adjusting with the new environment as well as with his interpersonal relationship. He is well-adjusted despite new faces and authority. My child, in my observation, feels a sense of belongingness and quite confident about his accomplishments for the day. Other kids would show